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The intake port is connected to the crankcase through a reed valve or a rotary disk valve driven by the engine. For each cylinder, a transfer port connects in one end to the crankcase and in the other end to the cylinder wall. The exhaust port is connected directly to the cylinder wall. The transfer and exhaust port are opened and closed by the piston. The reed valve opens when the crankcase pressure is slightly below intake pressure, to let it be filled with a new charge; this happens when the piston is moving upwards.
When the piston is moving downwards the pressure in the crankcase increases and the reed valve closes promptly, then the charge in the crankcase is compressed. When the piston is moving downwards, it also uncovers the exhaust port and the transfer port and the higher pressure of the charge in the crankcase makes it enter the cylinder through the transfer port, blowing the exhaust gases. Lubrication is accomplished by adding 2-stroke oil to the fuel in small ratios.
Petroil refers to the mix of gasoline with the aforesaid oil. This kind of 2-stroke engine has a lower efficiency than comparable 4-strokes engines and releases more polluting exhaust gases for the following conditions: They use a total-loss lubrication system : all the lubricating oil is eventually burned along with the fuel. There are conflicting requirements for scavenging: On one side, enough fresh charge needs to be introduced in each cycle to displace almost all the combustion gases but introducing too much of it means that a part of it gets in the exhaust.
They must use the transfer port s as a carefully designed and placed nozzle so that a gas current is created in a way that it sweeps the whole cylinder before reaching the exhaust port so as to expel the combustion gases, but minimize the amount of charge exhausted. In crankcase scavenged 2-stroke engines, exhaust and intake are performed mostly simultaneously and with the combustion chamber at its maximum volume. The main advantage of 2-stroke engines of this type is mechanical simplicity and a higher power-to-weight ratio than their 4-stroke counterparts.
Despite having twice as many power strokes per cycle, less than twice the power of a comparable 4-stroke engine is attainable in practice. In the US, 2-stroke engines were banned for road vehicles due to the pollution. Off-road only motorcycles are still often 2-stroke but are rarely road legal.
However, many thousands of 2-stroke lawn maintenance engines are in use. An engine of this type uses ports or valves for intake and valves for exhaust, except opposed piston engines , which may also use ports for exhaust. The blower is usually of the Roots-type but other types have been used too. This design is commonplace in CI engines, and has been occasionally used in SI engines. CI engines that use a blower typically use uniflow scavenging. In this design the cylinder wall contains several intake ports placed uniformly spaced along the circumference just above the position that the piston crown reaches when at BDC.
An exhaust valve or several like that of 4-stroke engines is used. The final part of the intake manifold is an air sleeve that feeds the intake ports. The intake ports are placed at a horizontal angle to the cylinder wall I. The largest reciprocating IC are low speed CI engines of this type; they are used for marine propulsion see marine diesel engine or electric power generation and achieve the highest thermal efficiencies among internal combustion engines of any kind.
Some Diesel-electric locomotive engines operate on the 2-stroke cycle. The most powerful of them have a brake power of around 4. See the external links for an in-cylinder combustion video in a 2-stroke, optically accessible motorcycle engine. Historical design[ edit ] Dugald Clerk developed the first two-cycle engine in It used a separate cylinder which functioned as a pump in order to transfer the fuel mixture to the cylinder.
The crankcase and the part of the cylinder below the exhaust port is used as a pump. The carburetor then feeds the fuel mixture into the crankcase through a reed valve or a rotary disk valve driven by the engine. There are cast in ducts from the crankcase to the port in the cylinder to provide for intake and another from the exhaust port to the exhaust pipe. The height of the port in relationship to the length of the cylinder is called the "port timing".
On the first upstroke of the engine there would be no fuel inducted into the cylinder as the crankcase was empty. On the downstroke, the piston now compresses the fuel mix, which has lubricated the piston in the cylinder and the bearings due to the fuel mix having oil added to it. As the piston moves downward it first uncovers the exhaust, but on the first stroke there is no burnt fuel to exhaust. As the piston moves downward further, it uncovers the intake port which has a duct that runs to the crankcase.
Since the fuel mix in the crankcase is under pressure, the mix moves through the duct and into the cylinder. Because there is no obstruction in the cylinder of the fuel to move directly out of the exhaust port prior to the piston rising far enough to close the port, early engines used a high domed piston to slow down the flow of fuel. Later the fuel was "resonated" back into the cylinder using an expansion chamber design. When the piston rose close to TDC, a spark ignited the fuel.
As the piston is driven downward with power, it first uncovers the exhaust port where the burned fuel is expelled under high pressure and then the intake port where the process has been completed and will keep repeating. Later engines used a type of porting devised by the Deutz company to improve performance. It was called the Schnurle Reverse Flow system. DKW licensed this design for all their motorcycles. Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame methods were used.
Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built. When Bosch developed the magneto it became the primary system for producing electricity to energize a spark plug. Small engines are started by hand cranking using a recoil starter or hand crank. Prior to Charles F. Kettering of Delco's development of the automotive starter all gasoline engined automobiles used a hand crank. The battery's charged state is maintained by an automotive alternator or previously a generator which uses engine power to create electrical energy storage.
The battery supplies electrical power for starting when the engine has a starting motor system, and supplies electrical power when the engine is off. The battery also supplies electrical power during rare run conditions where the alternator cannot maintain more than As alternator voltage falls below During virtually all running conditions, including normal idle conditions, the alternator supplies primary electrical power.
Some systems disable alternator field rotor power during wide-open throttle conditions. Disabling the field reduces alternator pulley mechanical loading to nearly zero, maximizing crankshaft power. In this case, the battery supplies all primary electrical power. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it by the movement of the piston from bottom dead center to top dead center when the fuel is at maximum compression.
The reduction in the size of the swept area of the cylinder and taking into account the volume of the combustion chamber is described by a ratio. Early engines had compression ratios of 6 to 1. The field of IC is closely related to creating and maintaining Control systems, control processes, automated systems, calibration of automated systems etc. It h got elements of electronics engineering, bit of software and programming, electrical systems, robotics, mechatronics engineering etc in it.
Okay, let us take an example. Have you been to a car manufacturing factory? Well, for many of us, going there in person is not a very easy task. Still, many of us have seen on TV about how a car is assembled, part by part, automatically by machines that have been programmed to perform specific tasks. Such a system works perfectly due to the control system managing it and the calibration done to this system.
IC Engineering is all about planning, developing and maintaining such systems. And as mentioned above, important elements that this Engineering branch makes use of are- hydraulics, programming, sensors, electronics control systems, microprocessors, microcontrollers etc.
Not only are such systems used in Car manufacturing units. These days, a good number of manufacturing units use automated systems to deal with manufacturing processes. This is mainly due to the increased productivity that these systems bring in with them!
IC Engineers are also responsible for developing new control systems technology through Research and Development work also. If you are interested in knowing more about the nature of IC Engineering, the next section will be of help to you. By taking a look at those subjects and topics, one may get a general idea about what the course is like and what it is all about.
IC (instrumentation and control) engineering is a specific field of engineering that involves designing control systems for monitoring production and. We provide Project Management from conception to completion. We take care of: Building Designs; Planning Permissions; Structural Design; Tenders; Property. ICE engineering staff provides the highest quality civil and structural design services to a wide variety of clients, including State Transportation.